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Important features of Parkinson’s Disease?

Parkinson’s Disease.

Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s is a progressive neurological condition.
It is progressive and symptoms worsen over time. It is named after Dr James Parkinson who first described the condition in 1817.
People with Parkinson’s don’t have enough of a chemical called dopamine because some nerve cells in their brain have died.
There’s currently no cure for Parkinson disease and we don’t yet know why people get the condition.
Without dopamine people can find that their movements become slower so it takes longer to do things.
The loss of nerve cells in the brain causes the symptoms of Parkinson’s to appear.
There’s currently no cure for Parkinson’s and we don’t yet know why people get the condition.
Parkinson’s doesn’t directly cause people to die, but symptoms do get worse over time…

Major Types of Parkinson’s disease.

Followings are the today major types of Parkinson’s disease

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is the most common of Parkinson’s disease. Unlike some of the others who have specific reasons not known why this happen idiopathic Parkinson. Idiopathic means the cause is unknown.
The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are tremor, stiffness and slowness of movement.
Symptoms and the speed with which the disease progresses varies from one person to another. This can make diagnosis difficult.
Early diagnosis means that the treatment of Parkinson’s disease can begin more quickly, which might be more effective as do Depression.
Other ways doctors can diagnose Parkinson’s disease experiencing is a response to Parkinson’s medication
If symptoms improve, your specialist can confirm the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.
The term begins with Parkinson’s disease is used when people are diagnosed in the frame 40.
Learn more about how Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed in our information page in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.

 

Vascular parkinsonism

Vascular Parkinson’s is one of atypical parkinsonism.

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Vascular parkinsonism affects people with restricted blood flow to the brain, people generally older who have problems with diabetes. People who have had a stroke may experience vascular parkinsonism.
Vascular parkinsonism symptoms may include difficulty speaking, difficulty swallowing, or facial expressions.
Additional signs may include a memory and a confused idea, cognitive problems and incontinence.
Such as Parkinson’s disease, vascular parkinsonism is a progressive disease in which symptoms develop and change over time.

Drug-induced Parkinson’s disease

A small amount (about 7%) of those diagnosed with symptoms of parkinsonism developed a particular medication.
Drugs – called neuroleptic drugs – used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders inhibits dopamine. These drugs are considered a major cause of drug-induced parkinsonism.
Dopamine is a chemical in the brain, which sends messages to parts of the brain that coordinate movement.
Parkinson appear when dopamine is reduced.
Parkinsonism symptoms usually drug-induced static. Only in some cases they change such that the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are.
Most people recover in a few months, often within a few hours or days, stopping the drug that caused the block dopamine.
Our newsletter parkinsonism drug induced lists the drugs that are known to cause disease.

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies is similar in some respects, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s and also as
Symptoms vary slightly Parkinson and include memory and concentration problems, attention, language and the ability to perform simple actions.
Sufferers body dementia Lewy commonly experience visual hallucinations and Parkinson-like symptoms, such as bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is a progressive disease, meaning that symptoms may worsen with time. At present there is no cure or treatment for the condition.
Learn more about dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s dementia – such as the treatment and management, and support for people with dementia and their carers and families.

Inherited Parkinson

There is no conclusive evidence that Parkinson’s disease is a hereditary disease that can be transmitted in families, except exceptionally rare cases.
It is believed that even if it is not directly inherited, some people may have genes that increase the possibility of developing Parkinson’s disease.
People who have genes which are sensitive to Parkinson’s disease may be more likely to develop the condition, when combined with other factors, such as environmental toxins or viruses.
Currently it is estimated that up to 5% of people with Parkinson’s disease may have a genetic cause.
The role of genetics may play in the development of Parkinson’s disease is currently under study in depth.
We inherited Parkinson’s disease, and genetic testing data sheet for details.
You can also read about the research we fund the causes of Parkinson’s disease.

Juvenile Parkinson

Juvenile Parkinson is the term used when the disease affects children under 20 years.
Read more in the release of our youth Parkinson.

Other types of atypical parkinsonism

The diagnosis shows that someone does not have Parkinson’s disease, but it has another unknown state can be confusing.
In some cases, symptoms that doctors can make a diagnosis appear slowly over a longer period of time, the condition develops.
If the tremor is the only symptom and it seems different from the tremor of Parkinson’s disease can be found, then the person may be diagnosed with essential tremor, dystonic tremor tremor, indeterminate or atypical tremor.
Some of the symptoms can lead to the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA), normal pressure hydrocephalus or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).

There are organizations that provide help and support for people with these conditions and their families:

Multiple System Atrophy Trust- information and support to people living in the MSA and their families
PSP Association – support staff in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and the condition Cortico degeneration (CBD)
&
National Tremor Foundation – help and support to those in all forms of tremor.

 

What are the Signs symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease?

Each person is affected differently by Parkinson’s disease and no two people experience exactly the same symptoms. The effects of Parkinson’s disease can be unpredictable, and it is common for people to good and bad days.

Primary Symptoms

The three main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease affects the physical movement:

  • Tremors – uncontrollable shaking, which usually starts in the hand or arm and is more likely to occur when the limb is at rest
  • slowness of movement (bradykinesia) – where physical movement is much slower than normal, which can make everyday tasks difficult and can result in a distinct slow, shuffling walk in very small steps
  • muscle stiffness (rigidity) – stiffness and tension in the muscles, which can make it difficult to move around and make facial expressions and can result in painful muscle cramps (dystonia)
    The main symptoms are sometimes referred to by doctors as ‘parkinsonism’.

Other symptoms

Parkinson’s disease can also be caused by a range of other physical and mental symptoms.

Physical Symptoms

  • balance problems, which can make a person with this condition more likely to have a fall and injure themselves
  • loss of sense of smell (anosmia), which sometimes occurs a few years before you develop other symptoms
  • nerve disease, which can cause unpleasant sensations such as burning, coldness or numbness
  • problems with urination, such as having to get up frequently during the night urination or urinary incontinence (the involuntary passing of urine)
    constipation
  • Erectile Dysfunction in men – an inability to get or maintain an erection
  • Sexual Dysfunction in Women – difficulty becoming sexually aroused and achieving an orgasm
  • dizziness, blurred vision or fainting when moving froma sitting or lying position to a standing one, caused by a
  • sudden drop in blood pressure
  • excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis)
  • difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), which can lead to malnutrition and dehydration
    overproduction of saliva (drooling)

Mental symptoms

  • depression and anxiety  

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    trouble sleeping (insomnia), which may result in excessive sleepiness during the day

  • Mild cognitive impairment – slight memory problems and problems with activities that require planning and organization
  • Dementia – a group of symptoms including more severe memory problems, changes in personality, visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not there) and delusions (believing things that are not true).

 

The causes of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease in most people idiopathic (no known specific cause). However, a small number of cases to be attributed to known genetic factors. Other factors that are associated with the risk of PD, but demonstrated no causal links.

Environmental factors

US military helicopter spraying Agent Orange on Vietnamese farmland during the Vietnam War
A number of environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease, including :. Exposure to pesticides, head injuries, and life in the country or agriculture [29] [30] Rural environments and drinking spring water risks can be as they are indirect measures of exposure to pesticides.

Involved include insecticides, chlorpyrifos and especially organochlorines and pesticides such as rotenone or paraquat and herbicides such as Agent Orange. Heavy metals exposure have proposed a risk factor, by any accumulation in the substantia nigra; However, studies have addressed the issue unconvincing.

Genetics

Rendering of Parkin crystal structure, pdb code 4K95
PD is traditionally considered a non-hereditary disease; But about 15% of individuals with PD a first-degree relative who has the disease. At least 5% of the people are now well-known forms of the disease that occur as a result of a mutation of one or more specific genes.

Mutations in specific genes conclusively shown to cause PD. These genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA), Parkin (PRKN), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 or dardarin), PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), DJ-1 and ATP13A2. [9] [35] In the majority of cases the people will develop with these mutations PD. With the exception of LRRK2, however, they account for only a small minority of the cases of Parkinson’s disease. The most extensively studied PD-related genes SNCA and LRRK2. Mutations in genes such as SNCA, LRRK2 and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) found risk factors were sporadic PD. GBA mutations known to cause Gaucher disease. Genome-wide association studies that seek to mutant alleles with low penetrance in sporadic cases, have now yielded many positive results.

The role of the SNCA gene of interest in PD because the alpha-synuclein protein is the major component of Lewy bodies. Missense mutations of the gene (in which a single nucleotide has been modified), and duplications and triplications of the locus containing it have been found in different groups with familial PD. Missense mutations are rare. On the other hand, multiplications of the SNCA locus accounts for about 2% of the familial cases. Multiplication found in asymptomatic carriers, which indicate that the penetration is incomplete or age-dependent.