Definition of Epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a disorder of the brains that causes people to have recurring seizures. Crises occur when nerve cells in groups, or neurons, in the brains sends the wrong signals. Neurons normally generate electrochemical impulses that act on other neurons, glands, and muscles to produce human thoughts, feelings and actions. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. During a seizure, neurons can fire up to 500 times per second, much faster than normal. Patients may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness.
Epilepsy is not contagious and is not caused by mental illness or mental retardation. Some people with mental retardation may experience convulsions, but the scenes do not necessarily mean the person has or develop psychiatric disorders. Many people with epilepsy have normal or above average intelligence. Famous people who are known or rumored to have had epilepsy include the Russian writer Dostoyevsky, the philosopher Socrates, the military general Napoleon, and the inventor of dynamite, Alfred Nobel, who established the Nobel Prize. Several Olympic medalists and other athletes also had epilepsy. Seizures sometimes do cause brain damage, especially if they are severe. However, most of the scenes do not seem to have an adverse effect on the brain. Any changes that do not happen usually subtle, and it is often unclear whether these changes are due to the scenes themselves or the underlying problem that caused the seizures.
Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important to begin treatment immediately. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. When drugs do not work properly, it can help or implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators. Special diets can help some children with epilepsy.
Signs of Epilepsy and epilepsy seizure.
Epilepsy is characterized by a long-term risk of recurrent attacks of epilepsy seizures.
These attacks can present a variety of ways, depending on the relevant part of the brains, and age of the person.
The most common form (60%) of the attacks are spasmodic. Of these, a third start as generalized seizures from the beginning, both hemispheres. Two-thirds begin as partial seizures (that affect one of the brains), which then may progress to generalized seizures. The remaining 40% of the attacks are non-convulsive. An example is the Absence, which presents a reduced consciousness and usually lasts for about 10 seconds
Partial seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as an aura. These may include sensory (visual, auditory, or smell), psychic, autonomic, or motor symptoms. Pull activity can start in a particular muscle group and spread to the surrounding muscles which is known as a Jacksonian march. Automatism may occur; These are non-conscious activities generated mostly simple and repetitive movements such as smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up.
There are six main types of generalized seizures:
tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence, and atonic seizures. For this, a loss of consciousness and typically happen without warning.
Tonic-clonic epilepsy seizures these present with a contraction of the limbs, followed by the expansion along with curvature of the spine that 10-30 seconds (the tonic phase) lasts. A scream can be heard due to contraction of the chest muscles. This is then followed by a shaking of the limbs in unison (clonic phase).
Tonic seizures constantly produce contractions of the muscles. A person often turns blue if breathing has stopped. In clonic seizures is shaking the limbs in unison. After shaking is stopped, it can last for 10-30 minutes for the person to return to the normal; This period is called the “post-ictal state” or “post-ictal phase.” Loss of bowel or bladder control may occur during an attack. The tongue may be bitten by either the point or on the wall during an attack. In tonic-clonic seizure, bites on the sides are more common. Tongue bites are also relatively common in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.
Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of the muscles in either a few areas or anywhere. Absences can be subtle with just a slight turn of the head or the eyes are blinking. The person does not have and will fall back to normal immediately after it ends.
Atonic seizures include loss of muscle activity for more than one second. This usually occurs on both sides of the body.
About 6% of people with epilepsy who are often triggered by certain events and are known as reflex seizures. Those with reflex seizures that are only activated by specific stimuli. Common triggers include flashing lights and sudden noises. For certain types of epilepsy, seizures often occur during sleep, and others they occur almost exclusively during sleep.
Epilepsy can have adverse effects on social and psychological wellbeing. These effects can be social isolation, stigma, or disability. They can lead to lower academic performance and poorer outcomes employment. Learning disabilities are common in people with the disease, especially in children with epilepsy. The stigma of epilepsy may also affect the families of people with the disease.
Certain disorders are more common in people with epilepsy, depending on the epilepsy syndrome present. These include depression, anxiety disorders, and migraine. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects three to five times more children with epilepsy than children in the general population. ADHD and epilepsy have important implications for a child’s behavioral, learning and social development. Epilepsy is also more common in people with autism.
After the active part of an attack, is typically a period of confusion referred to as the post-ictal period before a normal level of consciousness yield. This usually takes 3 to 15 minutes, but can take hours. Other common symptoms include fatigue, headache, difficulty speaking, and abnormal behavior. Psychosis after an epileptic seizure is relatively common, occurring in 6-10% of people. Often people do not know what happened in this time. Localized weakness, so-called Todd’s paralysis, may also take a partial seizure. If it happens it usually takes seconds to minutes, but it can rarely last for a day or two.
What causes epilepsy Seizure to occur
Causes of epilepsy vary by age of the person. Some people with no clear cause of epilepsy may have a genetic cause. But what is true for every age is that the cause is unknown for about half of everyone with epilepsy.
Some people without known cause of epilepsy may have a genetic form of epilepsy. One or more genes may cause seizure disorder or epilepsy may be caused by the manner in which certain genes work in the brains. The relationship between genes and attacks can be very complex and genetic testing is not yet for many forms of epilepsy.
- About 3 of the 10 people a change in the structure of the brains causing the storm attack.
- Some of the young children may be born with a structural change in a region of the brains that lead to develop seizures.
- About 3 out of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder may also attack. The exact cause and the relationship is still unclear.
- People of all ages can have head injuries, although serious head injuries usually occur in young adults.
- In middle age, strokes, tumors and injuries are frequent.
- Infections of the brains are also frequent causes of epilepsy. The initial infections are treated with medication, but the infection can leave scars on the brains, which causes seizures at a later time.
- In people over 65, stroke is the most common cause of new attacks. Other conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease or other conditions which affect brain function can also lead to epileptic seizures.
Common causes of Epilepsy seizures by age:
Epilepsy Seizure In New babies:
- Brain Malformations
- Lack of oxygen during birth
- Low levels of blood sugar, calcium, magnesium, or other blookd eletrolyte malfunctions
- Metabolic diseases
- Intercranial hemorrhage
- Maternal drug use
Epilepsy Seizure In Child ones:
- Fever (febrile convulsions)
- Brain tumor (rare)
In Adult Induals:
- Congenital disorders (Down syndrome, Angelman’s syndrome, tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis)
- Genetic factors
- Progressive brain disease (rare)
- Head Trauma
- Alzheimer’s Disease
How to diagnose epilepsy seizure?
Doctors have developed a number of tests to see if the person has epilepsy, and if so, what kind of seizures the person has. In some cases, people may have symptoms that are very similar to the seizure but in fact are non-epileptic events caused by other disorders. Even doctors may not be able to tell the difference between these disorders and epilepsy without close observation and intensive testing.
EEG records brain waves detected by electrodes placed on the scalp. This is the most common diagnostic test for epilepsy seizure and can detect abnormalities in the electrical activity of the brain. People with epilepsy often have changes in their normal brain waves, even if they have not experienced a crisis. Although this test can be very useful in the diagnosis of epilepsy, it is not infallible. Some people continue to show normal patterns of brain waves, even after they have experienced a crisis. In other cases, the abnormal brain waves generated deep in the brain, where the EEG is unable to detect them. Many people who do not have epilepsy also show abnormal brain activity in the EEG.
Whenever possible, an EEG should be performed within 24 hours of the first patient crisis. Ideally, the EEG should be performed when the patient is asleep and when he is awake, because brain activity during sleep is often very different from that at other times.
The brain Scans
One of the most important tools in the diagnosis of epilepsy seizure is the use of brain scans. The scans of the brain most commonly used include CT (computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). CT and MRI reveals brain structure, which can be useful for identifying brain tumors, cysts, and other structural abnormalities. PET and adapted to the nature of MRI called functional MRI (fMRI) to monitor brain activity and detect abnormalities in how it works. SPECT (single yksifotoiiiemissiotietokonetomografiassa) is a relatively new kind of brain that is sometimes used to locate seizure foci in the brain.
In some cases, doctors may use an experimental type of brain called magnetoencephalogram or MEG. MEG detects the magnetic signals generated by neurons to allow doctors to monitor brain activity in the brain at different times, revealing different brain functions. Although the concept is similar to the GET MEG, it does not require electrodes and it can detect signals from deeper in the brain in the EEG. Physicians have also tried on brain scans are called resonance (MRS), which can detect abnormalities in the brain biochemical processes and near infrared spectroscopy, a technology that can detect the oxygen concentration in the brain tissue.
Medical life of individual
After a detailed medical history, including symptoms and duration of attacks, is still one of the best methods available if a person has epilepsy and what kind of scenes he has. Your doctor will ask about scenes and any past illnesses or other symptoms a person can have. Since people who have suffered a seizure often do not remember what happened, caregivers of before the accounts are critical to the assessment.
Blood complete tests
Doctors often blood samples, particularly when examining a child. These blood samples are often screened for genetic or metabolic disorders which may be associated with seizures. They can also be used to check basic problems such as infections, lead poisoning, anemia and diabetes, which can cause or trigger attacks.
Wish epilepsy seizure be avoided?
Many cases of epilepsy can be avoided by the use of seat belts and bicycle helmets, putting children in car seats and other measures that prevent head injury and other trauma. Prescription drugs after the first or second seizures or febrile seizures may also help prevent epilepsy in some cases. Good prenatal care, including high blood pressure and infections during pregnancy, can prevent brain damage in the fetus, which can lead to epilepsy and other neurological problems later. The treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, infections and other diseases which can affect the brain during adulthood and can prevent aging of many cases of epilepsy. Finally, to identify genes for many neurological disorders can provide opportunities for genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis that could potentially prevent many cases of epilepsy.
The best steps to take during epilepsy seizure?
Epilepsy is usually treated with a daily medication took place once a second attack, but for those at high risk, medication can be started after the first attack. In some cases, a special diet, required the implantation of a neurostimulator or neurosurgery.
Throwing a person with an active tonic-clonic seizure on his side in the recovery position and helps prevent liquids from getting into the lungs. Putting fingers, a bite block or tongue depressor discouraged in the mouth because this person could make vomit or result is bitten in the rescuer. Efforts should be taken to prevent further self-injury. Spinal precautions are generally not necessary.
If a seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes or if there are more than two attacks in an hour without a return to a normal level of consciousness between them, it is considered a medical emergency known as status epilepticus. This may need medical help to keep the airway open and protected; a naso-pharyngeal airway may be useful for this. At home, the recommended initial medication for seizure of a long duration midazolam placed in the mouth. Diazepam can also be used rectally.
What to do if someone suffers from epilepsy seizure?
Always carry a medical identification. If an emergency situation, your knowledge of epilepsy help people around you to keep you safe and provide appropriate treatment.
Make sure your family, friends and colleagues know what to do if you have a crisis. (See below.)
- To avoid the potential risks of high places or moving machinery at home, at school, or at work if you have an active attacks. Although there is less risk if your seizures are under control, you should focus on the specific risks of certain activities (such as shearing, working around farm machinery, hot appliances, etc.).
- It is important for you to stay active, but you must choose your sports and other activities wisely. You may want to avoid contact sports, but if you attack well controlled, you can lead a normal life. The buddy system works well, so having another person with you who knows you attack and what to do if you have one. Activities such as baseball, cycling, canoeing, horseback riding, or hockey can be made safer by wearing helmets and life jackets and having another person with you – but it applies to everyone.
- If you are taking anti-epileptic drugs, do not suddenly stop using or change the dosage without consulting your doctor. The type of anticonvulsant drugs prescribed depending on the type of epilepsy you, and the dosage is determined by your weight, age, sex and other factors.
- Be alert to the risk of potential drug interactions between your anti-epileptic drugs and other medications you are taking, including over-the-counter medications. Call your doctor or pharmacist if you are unsure of what interactions may occur before a drug. Most pharmacists will do it for you, and the Internet has many excellent ladies of drug interactions.
- Avoid alcohol because it can interfere with the effectiveness of your medication and may lower brain seizure threshold.